High Yield and Ultra short term cultivation experiment of Dendrobium candidum
1、 Biological characteristics and growth habits of Dendrobium candidum
The survival of Dendrobium candidum does not mean that it can grow. Dendrobium candidum can grow only when the temperature is appropriate, that is, the survival temperature is different from the growth temperature. Like other subtropical plants, Dendrobium candidum generally starts to grow only when the temperature is above 10 ℃, but when the temperature exceeds 35 ℃, the growth slows down or even stops. In other words, the growth temperature range of Dendrobium candidum is about 10 ℃ to 35 ℃.
Like all other plants, Dendrobium candidum also has an optimum temperature range. At the optimum temperature, Dendrobium candidum grows most rapidly. AI Juan and others have studied the response of photosynthesis and growth of Dendrobium candidum to temperature through temperature control experiments. It is found that the temperature of 30 ℃ is more suitable for the photosynthesis of Dendrobium candidum, and the suitable growth temperature of Dendrobium candidum is 25-30 ℃ day temperature and 15-20 ℃ night temperature. However, Cai Yongping and others considered that the optimum temperature for the growth of Dendrobium candidum was 23 ℃. Su Wenhua et al μ When the leaf temperature increased from 10 ℃ to 35 ℃ under mol · m-2 · S-1 light, the maximum CO2 absorption value appeared at 20 ℃, that is, the optimum temperature for CO2 absorption was about 20 ℃, and the CO2 recovery rate was zero at 35 ℃. Under the condition of no light, the maximum CO2 recovery rate appears at 25 ℃. Although this research is not comprehensive, it can be considered that the optimum growth temperature of Dendrobium candidum is between 20 ℃ and 30 ℃.
Dendrobium candidum is a kind of medicinal plant. Its main pharmacodynamic components are secondary metabolites, such as polysaccharides and alkaloids. Existing studies show that temperature also affects the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. The results of temperature control test by AI Juan et al. Showed that the polysaccharide content in plants grown at 20 ℃ / 10 ℃ was significantly higher than that in plants grown at 30 ℃ / 20 ℃ and 40 ℃ / 30 ℃. Our study showed that the polysaccharide content of Dendrobium candidum planted in Guangzhou was the highest in winter and the following spring. Obviously, appropriate low temperature is conducive to promote polysaccharide biosynthesis.
In the later growth stage, Dendrobium candidum can grow in cold storage and supplement light. Under the condition of 10-15 ℃, the polysaccharide content can be increased and induced at low temperature.
1.2.1 misunderstanding of shade plants:
The photosynthetic function of shade plants is stronger than that of Yang plants. Like Yang plants, shade plants need light energy.
The difference between shade plants and sun plants lies in their weak ability to resist infrared and ultraviolet light.
When there is no infrared and ultraviolet light in the light energy spectrum of plants, the growth rate of shade plants will increase.
1.2.2 dialectics between plant light reaction and dark (carbon) reaction:
Plant growth is close to synchronization, rather than people's habitual animal growth is produced during sleep.
Plant growth is a model of autotrophy through the light dark reaction of photosynthesis; Animals are fed through self digestion.
1.2.3 dialectics of plant growth period:
The length of plant photosynthesis is the only basis for plant growth period.
The biomass accumulation of plants is only related to the total accumulation of photosynthetic luminous flux.
1.2.4 plant photosynthesis is related to light quality: light quality includes: the upper and lower limits of luminous flux at the critical point of photosynthesis; Spectrum of light (red and blue); Spectral proportion of light; Light pulse mode (similar to sunlight); Photon concentration (similar to sunlight); The amount of photons input to the leaf surface; Corresponding to plant photosynthetic physiology (light dark response cycle); Infrared temperature regulation (photosynthetic consistency) among plant leaves, etc.
1.2.5 suitable light intensity of Dendrobium candidum
The research of CAI Yongping et al. Shows that the suitable light intensity of Dendrobium candidum in Huoshan, Anhui is generally 400 μ mol·m-2·s-1－600 μ mol·m-2·s-1。 It is not clear whether there are differences in the most suitable light intensity of wild Dendrobium candidum in different regions.
This is the light intensity of sunlight, such as laser or LED, and the growth rate of Dendrobium candidum will double.
Existing studies have shown that Dendrobium candidum is a facultative cam plant. With the change of light environmental conditions, its photosynthesis changes between Rhodiola acid metabolism pathway (CAM) and reduced Rong sugar phosphate pathway (C3 pathway). Because of this characteristic, Dendrobium candidum is a drought tolerant plant, which can grow in a very arid environment.
Dendrobium candidum is a typical parasitic orchid. Its root is aerial rooting and its habit is to absorb nutrients from the air. It is most suitable to spray bacon or leaf surface with organic carbon nutrient solution.
According to the orchid characteristics of Dendrobium candidum, its absorption and cultivation mode is determined. Orchid soil matrix culture or fog culture is the mainstream mode.
1.4.1 orchid soil substrate culture
Users can refer to the following matrix formula according to their own conditions:
Formula 1: deciduous leaves of broad-leaved trees (crop straw, grass, etc.) 10m3 + 2.5kg urea (or 250kg livestock manure and urine) + 2kg fermentation agent + 5kg rice bran, mixed with 150-200kg water.
Formula 2: conifer leaves (rice husk) 10m3 + 5kg urea (or 500kg livestock manure) + 4kg fermentation agent + 8kg rice bran, 200-300kg water.
Formula 3: conifer bark 2m3 + 1kg urea + fermentation agent 1kg + rice bran 5kg (urea 1kg + water 75-100kg).
First, prepare nutrient solution. Urea water is prepared by mixing 2.5kg urea with 150 ~ 200kg water, which is evenly sprinkled on the materials. The water content of fermentation materials is required to be controlled at 60-65%. This process is to prepare "nitrogen" nutrient solution for microorganisms (microorganisms need nutrients such as "nitrogen" and "carbon" for their own reproduction, and urea has high "nitrogen". Judgment method of whether the moisture is appropriate or not: hold a handful of materials tightly, see the watermark but do not drip, and it is appropriate to scatter on the ground.
Secondly, stack the materials. General requirements for building a fermentation pile of materials with adjusted moisture: the pile height is 1.2 ~ 1.5m, not less than 80cm, and the width is 2m. The length of the pile can be freely adjusted according to the number of fermentation materials. Generally, the length shall not be less than 2m, and the total volume of a single fermentation pile shall not be less than 3m3.
Third, connect the fermentation strain. After the urea water is soaked, cover it with a breathable cover and place it naturally for 24 hours. The next day, mix 2kg microbial fermentation bacteria with 5kg rice bran to form incremental bacteria, and evenly sprinkle it in the stacked material pile. Turn and sprinkle it at the same time. This process is called "inoculation" (that is, mix the microbial fermentation agent with the above other materials and sprinkle them into the pile, which is called "inoculation" in microbial engineering technology).
Fourth, cover and turn over. After planting, cover the pile with breathable covering to prevent light and rain. Under normal circumstances, after fermentation treatment, the temperature can reach above 55 ~ 60 ℃ after 5 ~ 10 days of fermentation. At this time, turn it once and complete fermentation for 2 ~ 3 times.
Fifth, the fermentation is completed. Under normal circumstances, the fermentation time of straw and deciduous substrate is about 15 days, sawdust substrate is 25-30 days, and bark substrate is 30-40 days. The fermented materials are dark brown, soft and fragile, and can be used after drying.
Sixth, after fermentation, it can be treated by high-energy electric field to enhance biological activity.
The quality and yield of Dendrobium candidum planted by XX Co., Ltd. are much better than the traditional method due to the use of sawdust nutrient matrix fermented by matrix nutrient soil starter and mature management technology. This method has the advantages of simple operation, cost saving and improving the yield and quality, which has been imitated by local users and small users. Moreover, through Shanghai Jing'an garden and Shandong Lily Garden The practice of users in Lin and other places has proved that using substrate nutrient soil starter to ferment all kinds of bark, straw and leaves as substrate is the most simple, easy and economic effective method. The nutrient soil produced is a very ideal soil material for seedlings and flowers, with good economic and ecological benefits.
1.4.2: spray culture
Advantages: one crop from June to December; more than 6 times of multiple cropping index; 24-hour growth; low temperature polysaccharide induction; organic carbon fog culture nutrient solution.
1.4.3 spray the plant wild action inducer leaves to increase photosynthesis by 6 times, which is conducive to multi head induction of new buds and resistance to low and high temperature.
1.5 during base culture, liquid carbon fertilizer shall be applied for 10-15 days
1.6 diseases can be removed by space electric field or live cultivation, and sterile air workshop can be opened
1.7 supplement 24-hour growth light, laser or LED light.
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